Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the helminth Schistosoma spp. and has the second highest global impact of all parasites. Schistosoma are transmitted through contact with contaminated fresh water predominantly in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America. Due to the widespread prevalence of Schistosoma, co-infection with other infectious agents is common but often poorly described. Herein, we review recent literature describing the impact of Schistosoma co-infection between species and Schistosoma co-infection with blood-borne protozoa, soil-transmitted helminths, various intestinal protozoa, Mycobacterium, Salmonella, various urinary tract infection-causing agents, and viral pathogens. In each case, disease severity and, of particular interest, the immune landscape, are altered as a consequence of co-infection. Understanding the impact of schistosomiasis co-infections will be important when considering treatment strategies and vaccine development moving forward.

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Author Bios

Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Dilhan Perera is completing his PhD in the division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University (Montreal, QC, Canada). Under the supervision of Dr. Momar Ndao, Dilhan’s current research focus is vaccine development and immunology for schistosomiasis and COVID-19. Dilhan earned his undergraduate degree in Microbiology and Immunology at McGill, and has spent time as a research assistant at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) and KGK Science (London, ON, Canada) conducting in silico analyses of aneurysms and assisting with nutraceutical clinical trials, respectively. Since 2017, he has published eleven peer-reviewed manuscripts, both reviews and primary research, and serves as the secretary for the Food and Environmental Parasitology Network (Health Canada). Dilhan currently holds a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Doctoral Award, and has been awarded with several institutional presentation awards and awards dedicated to teaching, mentorship, and enhancing student learning.
Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Cal Koger-Pease is completing their PhD in the division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University (Montreal, QC, Canada). Under the supervision of Dr. Momar Ndao, Cal’s current research focus is developing viral vectored vaccines and elucidating correlates of protection for schistosomiasis. Cal earned their undergraduate degree in Microbiology and Immunology at McGill, where they completed an undergraduate honours thesis focusing on short interfering RNA treatments for COVID-19. Since 2023, they have published two peer-reviewed manuscripts.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Kayla Paulini is completing her PhD in the department of Microbiology and Immunology at McGill University (Montreal, QC, Canada). Under the supervision of Dr. Greg Matlashewski, Kayla studies various phosphatases in Leishmania and how they pertain to infection. She earned her bachelor’s degree in Microbiology and Immunology at McGill University in 2017 after gaining research experience in three different labs working with Caulobacter crescentus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Heligmosomoides bakeri. After her bachelor’s degree, Kayla worked as a lab technician in the food microbiology industry before returning to graduate school. Currently, Kayla holds a Fond de Recherche du Québec en Santé doctoral award.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Mohamed Daoudi is a post-doctoral fellow in the Ndao lab in the department of Microbiology and Immunology at McGill University (Montreal, QC, Canada). He holds a PhD in Microbiology and Medical Entomology focusing on investigating geographical distribution and vectorial capacity of the Moroccan population of sand flies. His current research project focuses on the utilisation of extracellular vesicles to develop advanced methods for the early detection of infections, the creation of precise diagnostic tools, and the preventive measures against Tick-borne diseases and schistosomiasis. Mohamed has published nine peer-reviewed manuscripts since 2019, received the Federation of African Immunological Societies Award in 2019, and received a grant from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation in 2020.
Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
National Reference Centre for Parasitology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Momar Ndao is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, and earned his MSc and PhD in Tropical Medicine in International Health and Tropical Diseases at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (Antwerp, Belgium). He is currently an Associate Professor at McGill University in the Faculty of Medicine (Montreal, QC, Canada) and his research focuses on parasite vaccinology, diagnostics, and biomarker discovery using proteomic analyses. Dr. Ndao serves as the Director of the Canadian National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) and holds the following appointments: Chair of the Facility Animal Care Committee (FACC) Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre Glen, Co-chair of the Food and Environmental Parasitology Network (Health Canada), among others. He is also a member of several boards and committees including: the World Federation of Parasitologists, the executive board of the International Federation of Tropical Medicine, and the Scientific Committee of Pasteur Institute, to name a few.

Information & Contributors


Published In

cover image Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Volume 37Number 114 March 2024
eLocator: e00098-23
Editor: Louisa A. Messenger, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
PubMed: 38319102


Published online: 6 February 2024


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  1. Schistosoma
  2. co-infection
  3. immunology
  4. soil-transmitted helminths
  5. Plasmodium
  6. Leishmania
  7. Toxoplasma
  8. Trypanosoma
  9. intestinal protozoa
  10. Mycobacterium
  11. Salmonella
  12. UTI-causing agents
  13. SARS-CoV-2
  14. HIV
  15. cytomegalovirus
  16. hepatitis
  17. arboviruses



Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, and Writing – review and editing.
Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Author Contributions: Writing – original draft and Writing – review and editing.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Author Contributions: Writing – original draft and Writing – review and editing.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Author Contributions: Writing – original draft and Writing – review and editing.
Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
National Reference Centre for Parasitology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
Author Contributions: Resources, Supervision, and Writing – review and editing.


Louisa A. Messenger
University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA


The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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